The process of making silk

Step 1: Reeling

Silk from the cocoon of silkworm du, become the raw material for weaving silk. A cocoon can be pulled out of the cocoon of about zhi 1000 meters long silk, a number of cocoon silk combined dao and become raw silk. The cocoon out of the silk process is generally known as silk reeling. The original reeling method is to soak the cocoons in a hot pot of soup, hand-tapping, winding on the basket. The basin and basket are the original reeling instruments. The process of extracting the cocoons from the silk is generally known as reeling.

The second step: weaving

After processing, raw silk is divided into warp and weft, and according to certain organizational rules interwoven to form silk fabric, that is, weaving process. The production process of all kinds of silk fabric is different, and can be divided into two categories: raw weaving and cooked weaving.

Raw weaving, that is, the warp and weft silk without refining and dyeing first made fabric, called blank silk, and then the blank silk refining and dyeing into finished products. This kind of production method is low cost, short process, is the main way to use in the production of silk weaving.

Prepared weaving, that is, the warp and weft in the weaving before the first dyeing, weaving after the blank silk does not need to be refined and dyed into finished products. This way is mostly used in the production of high-grade silk fabrics, such as brocade, taffeta, etc. Before weaving, it is also necessary to do a good job of weaving.

Before weaving, it is also necessary to do preparatory work, such as impregnation to soften the silk glue, can improve the product properties of the merged silk and silk twine, as well as warping, weaving, weaving, weaving, weaving, weaving, weaving, weaving. Roll weft, etc. At the same time, due to the strong moisture absorption of silk, but also good moisture-proof work. At present, the automatic loom used in the production of silk weaving mainly has: for the production of synthetic fiber filament fabric water jet loom and in the production of multi-colored weft, water jet loom, water jet loom, water jet loom, water jet loom, and in the production of multi-colored weft. A rapier loom for jacquard fabrics.

Step 3: Dyeing and Finishing

The printing process plays an important role in the production of silk. It is only with the use of dyeing and finishing techniques that we can reproduce our favourite patterns and designs as perfectly as we wish on the blank. It makes the fabric more artistic. The process mainly includes four processes: refining, dyeing, printing and finishing of raw silk and fabrics.

(1) Refining

Silk consists of two monofilaments, the main body of which is a silk prion, with an outer layer covering the silk gel. Most of the pigments, oils, waxes and inorganic salts are present in the sericin. These impurities have a great influence on the effect of printing and dyeing, so they must be removed before dyeing. In long practice, people have grasped the property that silk glue is easily dissolved in hot water by the action of chemicals or enzymes, and taking advantage of this weakness of silk glue. The blank silk or raw silk is heated in a solution of soap (or synthetic detergent) and soda ash (sodium carbonate), and the silks are heated. It is hydrolyzed afterwards. Through this refining process, the silk glue is removed and the silk prion is preserved, and impurities such as pigment, grease and wax are removed to obtain a white silk. Manufactured product. The raw silk after degumming is called cooked silk. The degree of degumming of the raw silk should be determined according to the production requirements.\

(2) Dyeing

After refining the white colored blank silk, the dyeing stage begins. Dyeing is a process in which the dyestuff reacts chemically with the silkworm and the billet, allowing the billet to be dyed in a variety of colors. Since silk is a protein fiber and is not alkali-resistant, dyeing should be done in an acidic or nearly neutral solution. At present, the main dyes used in silk fabric are acid dyes, reactive dyes, direct dyes and reducing dyes. Acid dyes are used to produce brighter colors, and cationic fixing agent can be used after dyeing to improve the washing fastness of the products. Reactive dyestuff has good washing fastness on silk. Fabric dyeing methods vary with the variety of fabrics, such as crepe, yarn fabrics with rope dyeing or overflow jet dyeing, spinning, silk, satin and other fabrics. The fabric is hung or roll-dyed on a flat surface.

(3) Printing

One color is, after all, monotonous, and in addition to dyeing, people have used printing techniques to make silk colorful. Printing refers to the dye in accordance with the design of the pattern printed on the fabric of a process. Commonly used printing process have direct printing, drawing printing, anti-dyeing. Direct printing refers to the color paste directly through the screen printing version printed on the silk fabric, is one of the basic printing methods, can be used for a variety of dyes common Printing. Drawn and dyed, also known as engraved plate printing, is a process of drawing and dyeing with white engraving agent, before printing and dyeing with acid dyes with azo structure and Silk is dyed with reactive dyestuff, and then the pattern is printed with an engraving paste made with a white engraving agent containing a destructive pigment to suit the pattern. After steaming, the ground color of the stamped part becomes white, which is called "carved white".